Diabetes Glossary: Definitions of Tests, Treatments, Patients, More


Diabetes mellitus, a gaggle of illnesses which can be characterised by a excessive degree of blood sugar, is surprisingly frequent. Greater than 422 million folks worldwide had some type of diabetes in 2014, in accordance with the World Well being Group, together with roughly 30 million adults in the USA, in accordance with the Facilities for Illness Management and Prevention (CDC). Even in the event you don't have it, or in the event you're not among the many nearly 1 in Four folks in the USA who’ve it however don't realize it, you most likely know somebody who does.

Subsequently, it is sensible to teach your self about diabetes, both kind 2 diabetes, the most typical type, which is extra prone to assault in center age and happens when your physique turns into extra immune to insulin, by the CDC; Diabetes kind 1, an autoimmune illness that normally begins in younger and younger adults, destroying the cells the physique makes use of to supply insulin, in accordance with the Nationwide Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Illnesses (NIDDK); or one other kind, comparable to gestational diabetes and even prediabetes. The next glossary comprises details about all of them and extra.

As well as, it is sensible to grasp the diabetes warning indicators, particularly you probably have threat components that The American Coronary heart Affiliation (AHA) notes – as a household historical past of a type of the illness; or within the case of kind 2 diabetes, is over 45 years outdated, obese or belongs to a higher-risk inhabitants group, comparable to descendants of African Individuals, Hispanics or Latin Individuals, Native Individuals or Asians and Pacific Islanders. When you’ve got these threat components and in addition expertise signs comparable to extreme thirst, frequent urination, unexplained weight reduction, elevated urge for food or unexplained fatigue, or blurred imaginative and prescient, it’s time to search knowledgeable opinion. Nonetheless, remember that it’s possible you’ll not have signs, in accordance with the AHA.

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You’re going to get one of the best data and recommendation about diabetes and easy methods to forestall it from a medical skilled, particularly if that particular person is a licensed diabetes educator (CDE). "These well being professionals are particularly skilled to offer life-style schooling, food plan, train, treatmentand different components that may enhance and management blood glucose ranges, "he explains Lori Zanini, RD, CDE, who resides in Los Angeles. Your physician can refer you to 1, or it will possibly really be one. An endocrinologist is one other kind of specialist to whom your major care doctor can refer you.

Throughout your preliminary go to to the physician, a medical historical past shall be taken that features the extent and length of your signs, in addition to data on Every other particular person in your loved ones who has had diabetes and of what type. Then, lab assessments are prone to be ordered to measure your blood glucose, pay attention to the ADA. At a minimal, Zanini advises: “Ask your physician what your hemoglobin A1C degree is. This may let you know the common of your blood glucose ranges over the previous two or three months. "

In accordance with the Cleveland Clinic, you could possibly be recognized with diabetes in case your blood glucose after fasting assessments at 126 milligrams per deciliter (mg / dL) or extra; if two hours after consuming it’s 200 mg / dL or extra; or in case your A1C assessments at 6.5 % or extra. Or you will have prediabetes, a threat issue for diabetes, in case your fasting blood glucose is 100–125 mg / dL, your glucose after a meal is 140–199 mg / dL, or your A1C is at vary of 5.7–6.Four %.

RELATED: 5 methods to assist scale back your A1C

However making that prognosis, and figuring out what comes subsequent, relies on your distinctive scenario and the factors of your well being care supplier. Then it’s as much as you. If you’re recognized with diabetes and might management it, it might prevent from a collection of long-term well being problems, comparable to nerve injury, heart problems, imaginative and prescient issues, kidney illness and even amputations, pay attention to the NIDDK. Educating your self is a vital first step.

Glossary of diabetes

A1C See glycosylated hemoglobin take a look at (HbA1c).

Acanthosis nigricans A dermatological situation that may be an indication of insulin resistance. The pores and skin darkens on the face, the again of the neck or fingers, the armpits, the groin or different areas the place the pores and skin folds and acquires a velvety or raised texture. It could even have pores and skin tags and itching. It’s extra frequent amongst folks of Native American, African, Caribbean or Hispanic descent, in addition to amongst obese folks.

Acesulfame Okay Often known as Ace-KThis is a calorie-free sweetener that’s roughly 200 instances sweeter than sugar and is present in dietary drinks, amongst different meals.

Acetone A kind of ketone which may accumulate within the blood if glucose is mishandled, resulting in fruity breath that's frequent with diabetic ketoacidosis (CAD).

Kidney glands These endocrine glands are positioned on the kidneysY the hormones that secrete embrace cortisol, epinephrine (adrenaline)and norepinephrine (norepinephrine), which assist regulate blood glucose.

Onset diabetes in adults Different title for kind 2 diabetes, as a result of it’s extra prone to develop in adults. Nonetheless, increasingly, kids and adolescents develop the dysfunction in childhood. weight problems Charges go up.

Advantame A man-made sweetener that has no energy and about 20,000 instances sweeter than desk sugar.

Albuminuria A situation in which there’s a higher than regular quantity of albumin protein within the urine It’s a signal of kidney illness, for which individuals with diabetes have an elevated threat.

Alodynia Neuropathic ache brought on by stimuli that usually wouldn’t trigger ache, comparable to chilly or delicate strain.

Alpha cells Islet cells within the pancreas that produce glucagon

Antibodies Protein It’s discovered within the blood and physique fluids meant to guard the physique from doubtlessly dangerous international substances, comparable to micro organism or viruses (often known as antigens). Within the case of kind 1 diabetes, the physique produces antibodies that destroy the particular person's beta cells that produce insulin within the pancreas.

Antigens Overseas substances, comparable to viruses or micro organism, that are able to stimulating an immune response within the physique. In kind 1 diabetes, the physique treats insulin-producing beta cells as in the event that they have been antigens and manufactures autoantibodies to destroy them.

Synthetic Pancreas Additionally know as closed circuit system, this machine tries to imitate the manufacturing of pancreatic insulin. That’s, it makes use of insulin pumps, glucose sensors and clever software program to automate the administration of the correct quantity of insulin on the proper time for an individual who relies on insulin.

Aspartame It’s offered underneath the Equal and NutraSweet manufacturers, it’s a very low calorie. synthetic sweetener that's 200 instances sweeter than sugar.

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Asymptomatic No signs An individual with diabetes or prediabetes might not have any signs in any respect.

Autoantibody Check A take a look at for the presence of antibodies within the immune system that assaults and reacts by mistake with an individual's personal tissues or organs, often known as autoantibodies. Within the case of kind 1 diabetes, the immune system destroys the beta cells of the islets. Check for glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) or different antibodies, together with islet autoantibodies, might help diagnose kind 1 diabetes.

Autoimmune illness A illness during which your immune system assaults wholesome cells in your physique by mistake. In kind 1 diabetes, the physique treats insulin-producing beta cells as in the event that they have been international our bodies (antigens) and manufactures autoantibodies (proteins that should be protecting) to destroy them. Different examples of autoimmune illnesses. embrace Rheumatoid arthritis, a number of sclerosisY lupus.

Autonomic neuropathy Autonomous nerve injury which can have an effect on bodily features or blood strain and even create gastrointestinal signs. With diabetes excessive blood sugar It may injury nerves over time, resulting in situations comparable to orthostatic hypotension (a drop in blood strain when standing up); or gastroparesis (delayed or incomplete meals digestion, which results in nausea Y vomiting)

Bariatric surgical procedure Additionally know as weight reduction surgical procedureThis refers to a number of procedures that remove, keep away from or limit a part of the gastrointestinal tract and restrict the quantity of meals that an individual can eat. Sufferers not solely shed pounds, but additionally investigation has proven promising outcomes for put sufferers with kind 2 diabetes in remission. Bariatric procedures embrace biliopancreatic bypass with duodenal swap, gastric bypass, gastric sleeve and gastric band. Bariatric surgical procedure is authorised for clinically overweight folks with physique mass index (BMI) over 40, or folks with a BMI over 35 who even have a severe well being downside associated to weight problems, comparable to kind 2 diabetes, coronary heart illnessor sleep apnea.


Basal insulin the kind of insulin that’s all the time current within the background that retains blood glucose steady throughout fasting (like while you're asleep). Individuals receiving insulin remedy take long-acting or intermediate-acting insulins which can be slowly launched into the bloodstream to allow them to final 24 hours.

Beta cells Islet cells within the pancreas that produce insulin, in accordance with the Encyclopedia Britannica.

Blood glucose Often known as blood sugar, it’s the important kind of sugar discovered within the blood and the physique's important supply of power.

Blood glucose monitoring or testing Common blood sugar monitoring It is very important hold kind 1 or kind 2 diabetes underneath management (though it shouldn’t be used to diagnose diabetes). Most individuals use a blood glucose monitor (or glucometer) that permits them to take away a drop of their very own blood, place it on a take a look at strip and place it on the meter to get a studying. Some folks will use a steady glucose monitor (CGM). Seek the advice of along with your well being skilled how typically it is best to analyze your blood sugar degree and what the targets of the take a look at outcomes ought to be.

Bolus insulin Insulin that’s taken at mealtime to maintain your blood glucose managed after a meal. The dimensions of the meals you simply ate determines the quantity of bolus insulin you want. Some folks receiving insulin remedy take fast-acting insulins, which normally work in 15 to 30 minutes and final a number of hours.

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Calorie A unity That’s used to measure power. The energy proven on meals bundle labels are literally kilocalories, or 1,000 energy every. Monitoring energy could be necessary for weight management, which in flip might help with blood sugar management.

Carbohydrate A macronutrient (which is a form of vitamins) present in meals that embrace sugars, starches and fiber. The largest supply of carbohydrates It’s glucose, which the physique makes use of for power. Individuals with diabetes can embrace carbohydrates on a nutritious diet, however they need to work with their well being care supplier to find out their consumption targets.

Carbohydrate depend A meal plan method which will contain counting the quantity of grams of carbohydrates (g) at a meal after which pair it with a dose of insulin. Carbohydrate counting might help you management your blood sugar, together with the right steadiness of bodily exercise and medicines for insulin or diabetes.

Licensed Diabetes Educator (CDE) A well being skilled who has expertise in diabetes prevention, prediabetes and diabetes management and is licensed by the Nationwide Certification Board for Diabetes Educators. A CDE might help somebody with diabetes higher management their blood sugar degree, develop a diabetes-friendly food plan plan, begin an train routine and comparable issues.

Charcot A situation ensuing from nerve injury during which the joints and delicate tissue of the foot are destroyed over time. It’s sometimes a results of diabetic neuropathy. Individuals with Charcot find yourself with deformities within the ft and dislocated ankles. It is usually often known as Charcot's neuropathic osteoarthropathy, Charcot's foot or Charcot's arthropathy.

Closed circuit system See synthetic pancreas.

Steady glucose monitor (CGM) A tool It makes use of subcutaneous glucose sensors to robotically management blood glucose ranges 24 hours a day. MCGs that can be utilized on the arm or stomach for 10 to 14 days embrace Freestyle Libre, Medtronic Guardian and Dexcom G6.

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C-peptide take a look at A take a look at of the C-peptide protein, which displays the extent of insulin within the physique. Low protein ranges initially of the illness could also be an indication of kind 1 diabetes or latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA).

Diabetes A bunch of illnesses which can be characterised by hyperglycemia (excessive blood sugar) during which the physique can not correctly use glucose for power; both as a result of 1) the physique doesn’t produce insulin or it’s not sufficient to adequately management the quantity of sugar (glucose) within the blood, as is the case with kind 1 diabetes, or 2) the physique doesn’t use insulin successfully to regulate blood sugar, as is the case with kind 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes. You could be recognized with diabetes in case your blood glucose after fasting (and earlier than a meal) is 126 mg / dL or extra; if two hours after consuming it’s 200 mg / dL or extra; or in case your glycosylated hemoglobin A1C (a measure of the quantity of glucose that binds to hemoglobin in your purple blood cells) is examined at 6.5 % or extra. The commonest type of diabetes is kind 2, which accounts for 90 to 95 % of all circumstances of diabetes in the USA. Kind 1 diabetes accounts for a lot of the relaxation.

Mellitus diabetes Essentially the most formal time period for diabetes.

Diabetic ketoacidosis (CAD) A life threatening situation That may occur when the physique doesn’t have sufficient insulin to transform glucose into power, and begins to interrupt down fats as gasoline, releasing substances often known as ketones. Ketones accumulate within the bloodstream, which causes it to grow to be acidic and poison the physique. It’s extra frequent in folks with kind 1 diabetes.

Diabetic neuropathy Nerve injury which ends from poorly managed blood sugar. It may trigger nerve ache, lack of sensation, foot issues, accidents and even amputations. Virtually 60 % of individuals with diabetes have some kind of nerve injury.

Diabetic retinopathy. See retinopathy.

DPP-Four inhibitors Medication They enhance the extent of insulin produced after a meal and assist scale back the quantity of glucose the physique produces. Januvia (Sitagliptin) and Tradjenta (linagliptin) are among the many medicines on this class.

Dietary See registered dietitian.

Endocrinologist A physician who has particular coaching to diagnose and deal with folks with problems and illnesses of the endocrine gland, like diabetes.

Erythritol A sugar alcohol sweetener that has lower than 1 calorie per g, and has a really low impression in blood sugar ranges. One of many uncomfortable side effects of consuming an excessive amount of erythritol is gastrointestinal discomfort.

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Fasting plasma glucose take a look at (FPG) A diabetes take a look at that measures the quantity of glucose circulating within the blood and requires fasting from meals and drinks (besides water) for eight hours prematurely. A results of 126 mg / dL or higher might point out diabetes.

Quick or quick performing insulin Bolus insulin that’s taken earlier than a meal and begins working 15 minutes after injection, as NovoLog (insulin aspart), Apidra (insulin glulisine)and Humalog (insulin lispro).

Fructose A type of sugar present in fruits, honeyand tubers. Whereas it doesn’t induce a glycemic response, it’s nonetheless on the record of added sugars that the US authorities UU. Really helpful to restrict your food plan.

Gastroparesis A situation during which autonomic nerve injury causes delayed or incomplete meals digestion, which causes nausea and vomiting. It may be a complication of diabetes.

Gestational diabetes A situation in some pregnant girls during which insulin resistance causes blood sugar to be too excessive (hyperglycemia) and might trigger problems comparable to preeclampsia (hypertension), a better beginning weight within the child and beginning problems Gestational diabetes normally disappears after the kid is born, however might put the mom at higher threat of develop kind 2 diabetes Late in life.

GLP-1 receptor agonists GLP-1 receptor medicines which can be used to deal with kind 2 diabetes that mimic the results of the incretin hormone GLP-1, which is launched throughout a meal and lowers blood glucose. Victoza (liraglutide) Y Bydureon (exenatide) They’re included on this class of medicines.

Glucagon A hormone that helps forestall blood glucose ranges from falling too low throughout fasting and train by stimulating the liver to launch glucose. It’s produced by the cells of the alpha islets within the pancreas.

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Glucometer See residence blood glucose monitor.

Glucose A easy sugar That’s the important supply of power for dwelling cells. The largest supply of glucose is carbohydrates.

Glucose meter or monitor See residence blood glucose monitor.

Glycemic Index (GI) A measure of how meals will increase blood sugar ranges (glucose). Meals are categorized on a scale of zero to 100, 100 being pure sugar. Meals with low GI are categorized in 55 or much less (as Integral rice, lentils and most fruits); medium GI meals vary 56 to 69 (banana and spaghetti); and meals with excessive GI (consider rice muffins, popcorn and watermelon) vary 70 and better.

Glycemic load A measure of how meals will increase blood sugar ranges that compares the flexibility of the identical quantity of carbohydrates in every meals to extend your blood sugar. To find out the glycemic load of a meals, multiply its glycemic index (GI) by the quantity of grams of carbohydrates in a single serving, after which divide it by 100. Meals with low GL content material are categorized from 1 to 10; Medium degree meals of GL vary from 11 to 19; and a excessive content material of GL meals of rank 20 or increased. A cup of watermelon might have a excessive GI of 76, nevertheless it has a low GL of 8. Most registered dietitians suggest contemplating the glycemic load of a meals, slightly than the place it falls on the glycemic index, to construct a Diabetes pleasant food plan. .

Glycemic response the change in blood glucose degree That occurs while you eat meals or drink.

Glucose tolerance take a look at See oral glucose tolerance take a look at.

Glycosylated hemoglobin take a look at (HbA1c) A generally used take a look at to indicate how effectively you might be managing your blood glucose. It measures the quantity of glucose that adheres to hemoglobin in purple blood cells, on common, over the last three months. A results of 6.5 % or extra is diabetes.

Excessive blood sugar See hyperglycemia.

Residence blood glucose monitor A machine It’s normally used at residence to investigate a drop of blood that’s extracted by pricking the finger with a lancet. Then place the drop of blood on a disposable take a look at strip that’s inserted into the machine (also called a meter or glucometer).

Hormones Chemical signaling molecules The endocrine glands produce and secrete instantly into the bloodstream, the place they journey by the blood to bind to particular receptors in tissues and organs. The hormones set off numerous responses within the tissues that include the receptors. Hormones concerned within the blood sugar regulation (glucose) embrace (amongst others) insulin, glucagon, GLP-1, cortisol, epinephrine (adrenaline), norepinephrine (norepinephrine) and development hormone.

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Humalog A model title for fast motion insulin lispro, which is utilized in meals.

Human insulin Artificial insulin designed to imitate the insulin produced by the human physique. These at the moment in the marketplace embrace common fast-acting insulins (Humulin R, Novolin R), which is taken with meals; and human NPH: the manufacturers are Humulin N (isophane) and Novolin N, that are intermediate motion.

Hyperalgesia Neuropathic ache that’s extra intense than would usually be anticipated in response to a painful stimulus, comparable to warmth or a puncture.

Hyperglycemia Excessive blood sugar (glucose), which happens when the physique has too little insulin or can not use insulin correctly. Hyperglycemia is a attribute of diabetes.

Non-ketotic hyperglycemic hyperglycemic syndrome (HHNS) A life threatening situation That may occur when blood glucose turns into extraordinarily excessive, notably greater than 600 mg / dL. The physique will attempt to remove extra blood glucose within the urine, which can trigger severe dehydration and electrolyte imbalance. It may trigger mind swelling, irregular coronary heart rhythms, seizures, coma, organ failure and even demise.

Hypoglycemia Low blood sugar. For many individuals with diabetes, it means having a blood glucose degree of 70 mg / dL or much less. Signs embrace dizziness, tremor, blurred imaginative and prescient, disorientation, speedy or irregular heartbeat, irritability, fatigue, weak point or excessive starvation. A really low degree of blood sugar could cause seizures and unconsciousness. The situation is also called insulin response or insulin shock.

Ignorance of hypoglycemia Some folks with hypoglycemia don’t really feel or acknowledge the signs, they usually might must verify their blood sugar extra steadily or use a steady glucose monitor.

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Insulin A hormone that permits blood glucose to enter the muscle tissues, fats and liver for use as power. It’s produced by beta islet cells within the pancreas. Individuals with kind 1 diabetes produce little or no or no insulin, they usually should inject insulin each day to regulate their blood sugar ranges and survive. Individuals with kind 2 diabetes, prediabetes or gestational diabetes have insulin resistance, which implies that the hormone doesn’t work effectively sufficient of their our bodies, which once more produces too excessive a blood sugar degree. Nonetheless, somebody with superior kind 2 diabetes might have insulin on account of lack of beta cell perform over time.

Insulin-dependent diabetes See kind 1 diabetes.

Insuline bomb A computerized pump that delivers insulin 24 hours a day by a catheter positioned underneath the pores and skin, mimicking the way in which the physique releases insulin. A pump could be hooked up to a belt or saved in a pocket and could be programmed by the person.

Insulin response See hypoglycemia.

Insulin receptors Areas on the surface of a cell that permits the cell to bind with insulin. After they be part of collectively, the cell can take glucose from the blood and use it for power.

Insulin resistance A situation that happens when the physique doesn’t use insulin successfully. The pancreas initially produces extra insulin to beat this resistance, however when the organ can not meet demand, blood sugar will increase an excessive amount of (hyperglycemia). Prediabetes, kind 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes are the results of insulin resistance.

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Insulin shock See hypoglycemia.

Intermediate motion insulin Basal insulins that hold blood glucose steady throughout fasting, that are slowly launched into the bloodstream to allow them to final 12 to 18 hours. NPH insulins, comparable to Humulin N (isophane) and Novolin N, are examples.

Intermediate hyperglycemia A various time period for prediabetes

Intermittent fasting (IF) A fashionable food plan plan, typically used to shed pounds, which means restrict the hours or days you eat. Varieties of IF They embrace 5: 2, which implies limiting your food plan for 2 days and consuming usually for 5 days, and consuming with time restriction, which normally requires consuming for under eight hours a day and fasting for the remaining 16 hours. That is generally often known as Fasting food plan 16: 8.

Islet cells Hormone-producing cells inside the islets of the Langerhans tissues of the pancreas. The commonest kind of islet cells are beta cells, which produce insulin. Different kinds of islet cells embrace alpha cells, which produce glucagon.

Langerhans Islets A patch of endocrine tissue contained in the pancreas that comprises hormone-producing cells referred to as islet cells.

Islet cell transplantation A Experimental process to deal with kind 1 diabetes during which the islet cells are transplanted right into a recipient with the hope that they start to secrete hormones that enable impartial blood sugar regulation.

Jet injector A syringe kind It makes use of a slender stream of high-pressure insulin as an alternative of a hypodermic needle to penetrate the pores and skin and inject insulin into the physique.

Juvenile diabetes One other title for Diabetes kind 1, as a result of autoimmune dysfunction typically develops in childhood or early maturity.

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Ketoacidosis See diabetic ketoacidosis (CAD).

Ketones Often known as ketone our bodies, these substances They happen when there’s a scarcity of insulin within the blood and the physique breaks down physique fats for power. A buildup of ketones within the blood could cause it to grow to be acidic and trigger a life-threatening situation referred to as diabetic ketoacidosis (CAD). The situation is extra frequent in folks with kind 1 diabetes.

Ketone Our bodies See ketones.


Keto food plan Additionally referred to as to ketogenic food plan, this dietary method is targeted within the macronutrient depend, with roughly 55 to 70 % fats, 30 to 35 % protein and 5 to 10 % carbohydrates. On this plan, folks devour not more than 20 to 50 g of carbohydrates, which results in ketosis. The meals you’ll be able to eat in keto embrace avocados, olive oiland nuts. Meals that you’d keep away from in keto embrace bread, pasta, most fruits and beans.

Ketogenic Food regimen See keto food plan.

Ketosis A pure metabolic state that happens when the physique begins to launch ketones and burn fats as an alternative of carbohydrates as gasoline.

Lancet A spring machine It’s used to prick the pores and skin with a small needle to get a drop of blood that’s then positioned on a disposable take a look at strip to regulate glucose.

Laser remedy A eye surgical procedure process to protect imaginative and prescient and scale back the chance of imaginative and prescient loss brought on by diabetic retinopathy.

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Late onset diabetes See latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA).

Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) Often known as kind 1.5 diabetes or late onset diabetes, LADA It entails the kind of progressive failure of pancreatic beta cells seen in kind 1 diabetes, however normally happens extra slowly and happens later in life.

Lengthy performing insulin Basal insulins that hold blood glucose steady throughout fasting, that are slowly launched into the bloodstream to allow them to final roughly 24 hours or extra. Detemir (levemir); Tresiba (degludec); Y Lantus, ToujeoY Basaglar (glargine) are examples

Low blood sugar, low blood glucose See hypoglycemia.

Mannitol A low-calorie sugar alcohol sweetener.

Starting diabetes within the maturity of younger folks (MODY) A type of diabetes that may be traced to a particular genetic mutation. It normally seems in adolescents and younger adults. Some types of MODY produce barely elevated blood sugar ranges that stay steady all through life, with gentle or no signs, and with out problems. Different methods might require remedy with insulin or sulfonylureas, that are oral medicines that improve insulin launch from beta cells.

Meglitinides Medicines that stimulate the pancreas to launch extra insulin when taken with meals and used to deal with kind 2 diabetes. Manufacturers embrace Prandin (repaglinida).

Síndrome metabólico A grupo de condiciones que tienden a ocurrir juntos, lo que aumenta el riesgo de desarrollar enfermedades del corazón, professiony diabetes tipo 2. Entre las afecciones están el aumento de la presión arterial, el nivel alto de azúcar en la sangre, el exceso de grasa corporal alrededor de la cintura y los niveles anormales de colesterol o triglicéridos.

Metformina Un medicamento oral que generalmente es el medicamento de primera línea que se usa para tratar la diabetes tipo 2, y que a veces también se usa para personas con diabetes gestacional y prediabetes. La metformina scale back el azúcar en la sangre al reducir la cantidad de glucosa producida por el hígado y ayudar al cuerpo a usar la insulina de manera más efectiva. Pertenece a la biguanida Las clases de medicamentos y marcas incluyen Glucophage XR, Fortamet y Glumetza.

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Dosis mixta Dosis premezcladas de insulina en el que la insulina NPH de acción intermedia se puede mezclar tanto con análogos de insulina de acción rápida como con insulina common humana de acción rápida. Es una opción para las personas que necesitan un plan de tratamiento de insulina simplificado, a menudo porque son nuevos en la terapia de insulina, mayores, o tienen visión o destreza limitadas para manejar múltiples inyecciones.

Diabetes mellitus neonatal (NDM) A forma de diabetes que se puede rastrear a un mutación genética específica. Los bebés con DMN no producen suficiente insulina. Su condición a menudo se confunde con diabetes tipo 1. Los bebés con NDM tienden a nacer de tamaño insuficiente y crecer menos rápidamente que aquellos sin el trastorno. Alrededor de la mitad de los bebés con DMN lo tendrán de por vida; en la otra mitad, desaparecerá pero puede reaparecer más tarde en la vida.


Dolor neuropático Dolor que resulta de nervios dañados. La diabetes es una de las condiciones que pueden causar daño a los nervios. El dolor neuropático con frecuencia implica sensaciones de ardor u hormigueo, pero también puede tener cualidades de disparo, apuñalamiento, descarga eléctrica o adormecimiento. A menudo es espontáneo, pero puede ser provocado por un estímulo que normalmente no desencadenaría señales de dolor (alodinia) O su reacción a un estímulo podría sentirse más intensa de lo regular (hiperalgesia) o inusual (parestesia).

Neuropatía Ver neuropatía diabética.

Diabetes no insulinodependiente El primer término para diabetes tipo 2.

Nutricionista El nombre de una persona que dispensa consejos de nutrición. Alguien que se llama nutricionista no es necesariamente un dietista registrado (RD) o un dietista-nutricionista registrado (RDN). Los RD y los RDN deben obtener la certificación de acuerdo con necessities de la Academia de Nutrición y Dietética.

Weight problems Llevar exceso de peso, especialmente un índice de masa corporal (IMC) de 30 o más para personas en la mayoría de los grupos étnicos en los Estados Unidos. El exceso de peso es un issue de riesgo para la diabetes tipo 2.

Medicación oral para la diabetes Medicamentos que se toman por vía oral para ayudar a controlar los niveles de azúcar en la sangre (glucosa) en personas cuyos cuerpos aún producen algo de insulina, como muchas personas con diabetes tipo 2. Los medicamentos orales populares incluyen (pero no se limitan a) Metformina (biguanida), sulfonilureas, agonista del receptor GLP-1, y Inhibidores de SGLT2.

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Check oral de tolerancia a la glucosa Una prueba que mide cómo responde a la glucosa después de una comida que se usa para diagnosticar diabetes Por lo common, ayunará durante ocho horas y luego le extraerán sangre después de beber un líquido que contenga glucosa. Dos horas después, se analizará su sangre. Un resultado de 200 mg / dL o mayor puede indicar diabetes.

Hipotensión ortostática Una condición en la cual el daño nervioso autónomo hace que la presión arterial baje al ponerse de pie. Puede ser una complicación de la diabetes.

Exceso de peso Llevar sobrepeso, especialmente un índice de masa corporal (IMC) de 25 o más para las personas en la mayoría de los grupos étnicos en los Estados Unidos; 23 y más para los asiáticoamericanos y 26 o más para los isleños del Pacífico. El exceso de peso es un issue de riesgo para la diabetes tipo 2.

Dieta paleo También llamado "dieta cavernícola, "y abreviatura de dieta paleolítica, este es un enfoque de alimentación que llamadas para evitando alimentos que los hombres de las cavernas probablemente no comieron. Esos alimentos incluye granos, legumbres, lácteos, refrescos, dulces y carnes procesadas o curadas.

Páncreas A Organo que secreta enzimas digestivas, así como las hormonas insulina y glucagón, que se utilizan para la regulación del azúcar en la sangre (glucosa).

Parestesia Dolor neuropático que se siente como shudder, "Alfileres y agujas", ardor, picazón o entumecimiento.

Neuropatía periférica Daño al cuerpo nervios periféricos, which transmit messages between the central nervous system and the remainder of your physique. The commonest kind of peripheral neuropathy is diabetic neuropathy. Almost 60 % of individuals with diabetes have some type of nerve injury.

Polyphagia Intense urge for food introduced on by diabetes. As a result of you’ll be able to’t get sufficient power from the glucose you might be ingesting — both since you don’t have sufficient insulin or have insulin resistance — it’s possible you’ll shed pounds at the same time as your urge for food will increase and your physique turns to breaking down muscle and fats for power.

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Polyuria Extreme urination. It occurs when glucose builds up within the blood, and your kidneys start working tougher to take away the additional blood glucose. In case your kidneys can’t sustain, the surplus sugar is flushed out of your physique by urine.

Postprandial Blood Glucose A measure of blood glucose that’s taken 1 to 2 hours after consuming a meal. A standard goal postprandial studying for an individual with kind 2 diabetes is decrease than 180 mg/dL.

Prediabetes A threat issue for kind 2 diabetes that happens when the physique has stopped responding effectively to insulin — a situation often known as insulin resistance — and your blood sugar is elevated, although not excessive sufficient to qualify as diabetes. You could be recognized with prediabetes in case your fasting blood glucose is 100–125 mg/dL; your glucose after a meal is 140–199 mg/dL; or your A1C is within the vary of 5.7–6.Four %. Roughly 1 in three adults in the USA have prediabetes, and lots of don’t realize it. Shedding simply 5 to 7 % of your physique weight can delay or forestall diabetes you probably have prediabetes.

Preeclampsia A situation in being pregnant that’s characterised by hypertension and protein within the urine, and might result in well being problems that threaten each mom and little one. Gestational diabetes is a threat issue for preeclampsia.

Random Plasma Glucose Check (RPG) A take a look at for diabetes that measures how a lot glucose is circulating in your blood and doesn’t require fasting beforehand. A results of 200 mg/dL or higher might counsel diabetes.

Speedy-Performing Insulin See fast-acting insulin.

Registered Dietitian (RD) A well being skilled with particular coaching in the usage of food plan and diet to maintain the physique wholesome and who’s credentialed by the Fee on Dietetic Registration. A registered dietitian can information you in placing collectively a food plan and meal plan to assist handle blood sugar or weight.

Registered Dietitian-Nutritionist (RDN) See RD.

Common- or Brief-Performing Insulin Bolus human insulin that’s taken earlier than a meal begins to work 30 minutes after injection, comparable to human common insulin (Humulin R and Novolin R).

Retinopathy Eye illness that’s brought on by injury to the small blood vessels within the retina, which could be a complication of diabetes. Because the blood vessels bleed or leak fluid, imaginative and prescient loss might end result.

RELATED: What Are the Attainable Problems of Kind 2 Diabetes, and How Can You Keep away from Them?

Threat Issue One thing that will increase your likelihood of creating a well being situation or illness. Within the case of kind 2 diabetes, threat components embrace having a household historical past of the illness, having prediabetes, being older than 45, being obese, or belonging to a higher-risk inhabitants group, comparable to African American, Hispanic or Latin American, Native American, or Asian American and Pacific-Islander descent.

Saccharin Bought underneath the model title Candy 'N Low, this synthetic sweetener is calorie-free and is about 300 to 500 instances sweeter than sugar.

SGLT2 Inhibitors Medication which immediate the kidneys to excrete extra glucose by urine and are used to deal with kind 2 diabetes. Invokana (canagliflozin) is among the many medicine on this class.

Sorbitol A low-calorie sugar alcohol sweetener.


Stevia The favored title for steviol glycosides, that are sweeteners derived from the leaf of the stevia plant. They’ve little to no impression on blood sugar ranges.

Sucrose A easy carbohydrate often known as desk sugar. It’s manufactured from equal elements glucose and fructose. Individuals who have diabetes ought to handle their consumption of added sugar.

Sucralose Marketed underneath the model title Splenda, the substitute sweetener is 600 instances sweeter than sugar and has little to no impression on blood sugar ranges.

Sugar Sugar is the best kind of carbohydrate. It’s candy in style, and simply digested and absorbed by the physique. Glucose, fructose, and sucrose (desk sugar) are three frequent kinds of sugar. An individual with diabetes should handle their ingestion of sugar and different carbohydrates in order that blood glucose ranges stay steady and don’t rise too excessive or too low.

Sugar Alcohol A kind of low-calorie sweetener produced from a plant-derived carbohydrate with a chemical construction that partially resembles sugar and partially resembles alcohol. Generally used sugar alcohol sweeteners embrace erythritol, xylitol, sorbitol, mannitol, and isomalt, and you could find them in lots of so-called “sugar-free” gadgets, comparable to sweet, chewing gum, desserts, and drinks. As a result of they’re incompletely absorbed and metabolized by the physique, they’ve fewer energy than sugar, however generally carry uncomfortable side effects, comparable to bloating and gasoline.

Sugar Diabetes A colloquial time period for diabetes.

RELATED: 5 Sugar Substitutes for Kind 2 Diabetes

Sulfonylureas Medication that stimulate the pancreas to launch extra insulin when taken with meals and are used to deal with kind 2 diabetes. Manufacturers embrace Glucotrol (glipizide) Y Amaryl (glimepiride).

Thiazolidinediones Medication that make the physique extra delicate to the results of insulin and are used to deal with kind 2 diabetes. Actos (pioglitazone) is the one authorised drug on this class of treatment.

Kind 1 Diabetes An autoimmune dysfunction during which the immune system assaults and destroys the beta cells within the pancreas that make insulin. With out that hormone, hyperglycemia (excessive blood sugar) develops. Individuals who have kind 1 diabetes should take insulin injections to switch the insulin their physique doesn’t make, and monitor their blood glucose ranges each day. Kind 1 diabetes can happen at any age, nevertheless it normally seems in childhood or early maturity. It has additionally been often known as juvenile diabetes and insulin-dependent diabetes.

Kind 2 Diabetes The commonest type of diabetes, affecting 90 to 95 % of all circumstances in the USA. It’s brought on by insulin resistance, when the physique doesn’t use the insulin it produces successfully sufficient to maintain blood glucose from changing into too excessive (hyperglycemia). Kind 2 diabetes sometimes develops in center age, however more and more, youthful individuals are being recognized with the sort of diabetes.

Kind three Diabetes The time period kind three diabetes has been utilized in well being media and medical literature make reference to Alzheimer’s illness as a result of the neurodegenerative illness is linked to insulin resistance within the mind. Nonetheless, kind three diabetes shouldn’t be a time period of medical prognosis.

Kind 1.5 Diabetes See latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA).

RELATED: Why Some Researchers Are Calling Alzheimer’s Illness a ‘Kind three Diabetes’

U-100 The commonest measure of insulin power. U-100 insulin means 100 items of insulin per milliliter (mL) or cubic centimeter (cc) of answer in a single vial.

Unit of Insulin A measure of insulin. The commonest power is 100 items of insulin per milliliter (mL) or cubic centimeter (cc) of answer in a vial, often known as U-100. Some insulin can also be out there in U-200, U-300, or U-500 power.

Yeast An infection A genital fungal an infection involving the yeast Candida albicans, which hyperglycemic individuals are at increased threat of getting steadily as a result of the additional glucose in bodily fluids supplies extra gasoline for the yeast. In females the signs can embrace: vaginal itching, ache or discomfort throughout urination, redness or soreness; ache throughout sexual activity; and thick, irregular vaginal discharge.

Xylitol A low-calorie sugar alcohol sweetener.

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